Infections that consist of multiple parasite strains or species are common in the wild and are a major public health concern. Theory suggests that these infections have a key influence on the evolution of infectious diseases and, more specifically, on virulence evolution. However, we still lack an overall vision of the empirical support for these predictions.
We think that within-host interactions between parasites largely determine how virulence evolves and that experimental data support model predictions. We also think that it is possible to make sense out of the complexity inherent to multiple infections and that experimental evolution settings may provide the best opportunity to further our understanding of virulence evolution. Finally, it is necessary to take into account epidemiological feedback to understand ecological and evolutionary effects of multiple infections.A review on multiple infections and virulence evolution » A review on coinfection and superinfection models »